Jewish Persecution: 1 CE – Today, part 81

The First Crusade reached Jerusalem and began to besiege it on June 7th, 1099. An estimated 5,000 knights and 30,000 foot soldiers left Europe in the fall of 1096 on vows to journey to the Holy City and take it from the Muslim Seljuk Turks for Christianity. In the three years it had taken them, their numbers had dwindled to a scant 1,500 knights and 12,000 foot soldiers, and the Egyptian Fatimid Muslims had captured Jerusalem from their Turkish rivals. The Fatimid governor Iftikhar ad-Daula had evicted the Christian inhabitants in advance of their arrival, probably to prevent the kind of collusion that occurred at Antioch. He didn’t evict the Jewish residents, who fought on the side of the Shi’a Muslims against the Christian invaders. 

Adhemar the deceased bishop and papal legate began to visit the knights in visions; this was a new Battle of Jericho and they must bring down Jerusalem’s might walls by shouting the Lord’s praises with Hosannas to the heavens! For about three days they circled the city barefoot, singing and chanting. Then Peter the Hermit, leader of the People’s Crusade, began a preaching circuit at some of the Holy City’s landmarks featured in the Gospels. He spoke at the Valley of Jehoshaphat, the Garden of Gethsemane, and on the Mount of Olives. Peter’s sermons ignited their passions and on June 13th the Crusaders attempted a direct assault. It failed.  

Time was running out. Hunger and thirst had killed far more of their soldiers and animals than battle, and this siege was no exception. The people in the city were better prepared to wait things out than the Crusaders camped outside. The Christians started gathering wood from Samaria to build siege engines and two Genoese supply ships arrived in Jaffa. They constructed two 50-foot high siege towers, a battering ram, and a number of catapults. Scouts brought intelligence reports that hastened the urgency of building: a Fatimid army was coming from Egypt to reinforce Jerusalem. If the Christians didn’t take the city soon, they would be slaughtered. 

The night of July 14th, the Crusaders took one tower to the south wall and another to the northwest. Getting a siege engine to a city wall takes time. You can’t build it right outside: you’ll get pelted with defensive weaponry or harried in construction. Siege weapons were usually constructed nearby but not literally on site. The Muslim defenders aimed flaming arrows and pots of oil at the first siege engine as it was rolled forward. It was engulfed in fire and destroyed. Duke Godfrey was in command of the second north western tower. It took two hours for the siege engine to reach the weak point in the walls. Two Flemish brothers were the first Crusaders over the walls, and then a stream of knights followed after. They opened the gates and the massacring began. 

Muslims took to the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque for shelter while Jews of the city fled to the synagogue. The Christians were bloodthirsty, by all accounts, including their own.  Raymond of Aguilers wrote of the Temple Mount killings, “in the Temple and porch of Solomon men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins.” The anonymous eyewitness author of the Gesta Francorum describes this same scene with the phrase, “the slaughter was so great that our men waded in blood up to their ankles.” An Arabic account states that all the Jews were burned alive in their synagogue, though Jewish records only record the destruction of the synagogue and suggest some of the Jews were ransomed by a nearby Jewish community in Ascalon. 

Godfrey of Bouillon was made Advocatus Sanctus Sepulchri or Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre on July 22nd of the newly minted Kingdom of Jerusalem. He led his troops on August 12th against the Fatimid army reinforcements from Egypt at the Battle of Ascalon. The Crusaders had discovered the location of the True Cross from talking to Christian residents of Jerusalem, and that most holy of relics inspired them on to their final victory. The Crusade was a success. The Holy City had been reclaimed. The original Byzantine focus on dealing with a Turkish foe was of no concern to these zealous knights. They had fulfilled their spiritual obligations and their vows. Nearly all of them returned to Europe. 

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Jewish Persecution: 1 CE – Today, part 80


Pope Urban II chose the French Bishop of Le Puy Adhemar as his papal legate for the First Crusade, at the Council of Clermont in 1095. By the summer of 1098 when they had captured Antioch, he had proven himself on the battlefield and was the clear spiritual inspiration of the Crusaders. Adhemar held skepticism about the Holy Lance prophecied and then discovered by Peter Bartholomew; he had seen the real one in Constantinople. But when it was needed to boost morale of starving troops, he allowed faith in the “relic” to grow. Adhemar led the Christians to victory, holding the “Holy Lance” out before them all, letting them draw courage from it. 

He planned to put a stop to the heresy. Soon. Ish. But shortly after the the fight ended in victory, Adhemar fell to the epidemic that hit Antioch (probably typhus). On August 1, 1098 he shuffled off his mortal coil – and became legendary in the status of Crusaders and bards. However, this left a power vacuum for the ecclesiastical Crusade leader. Accusations of deception and false prophecy were laid against Peter Bartholomew after the Crusaders made their way, through a success at the fortress of Maarat in January, 1099. The battle at Maarat was won by Raymond of Toulouse’s army. The Crusaders were so starved by this time, they ate the cooked flesh of their felled enemies. Raymond was a staunch supporter of the French priest and supposed prophet who predicted military successes which raised morale. He started a siege at Arqa, hoping to have it subdued before conquering Tripoli for himself.

The lack of true Crusade leadership was a problem. Peter Bartholomew claimed the ghost of Adhemar had visited him, confirming the Holy Lance was a sacred relic. This was too much for some of the common knights, who still considered Adhemar their leader even in death. His critics challenged Peter Bartholomew to prove himself, and thus the Holy Lance, legitimate through a Biblical trial. In the ultimate case of playing chicken and not blinking, Peter Bartholomew agreed of his own will (according to the chroniclers) to a trial by fire that April 8th. He was severely burned; however,  he contended that he was not burned until people rushed into the fire to save him. Jesus had been protecting him until then. Peter Bartholomew died of his burns. Raymond of Toulouse was discredited, as the main knight backing him and claiming the Lance’s truth. 

On May 13th the Crusaders abandoned the siege of Arqa and moved on to Tripoli. They had gained nothing. The emir of Tripoli Jalal al-Mulk Abu’l Hasan ruled an independent emirate, not loyal to the Seljuk, Abbasid, or Fatimid. He paid the Crusaders to bypass his city in their march toward Jerusalem with 300 Christian slaves and horses for their army. The Crusaders accepted the terms. They kept moving, and by May 19th proceeded through Beirut. The Christians reached a mostly abandoned Ramlah and established a church before advancing the final steps of their journey. On June 6th they captured Bethlehem. The next day they finally arrived at the outer walls of Jerusalem. Many of the Crusaders wept with joy. They had given years to make it here. Starved, nearly died, resorted to cannibalism. But now their sacrifices were nearly worthwhile, their Crusader vows almost fulfilled. 

The siege for the Holy City began at last. 

Jewish Persecution: 1 CE – Today, part 79


The Eastern Mediterranean of the 11th century was an Islamic world in flux. Muslim prophecy foretold of a series of imams who would follow after the Prophet Muhammad. The last of these would fight alongside with ‘Īsā ibn Miryam (Jesus) against the Antichrist in an apocalyptic battle at the end of days, before creating paradise on Earth. In Sunni Islam, an imam is a cleric who reads the Qur’an and leads prayer, largely analogous to a Christian priest or minister or to a Jewish rabbi. In the Shi’a tradition, however, they must come from the House of the Prophet and be pure in word and deed. An imam is infallible, guided by God, and must be obeyed. 

Shi’a Muslims, those who believe Ali (Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, husband of his daughter Fatima) was the rightful successor of the Prophet, consider Ali to be not just the Fourth Caliph, but also the First Imam. Each subsequent Shi’a imam was a descendant of Ali, and of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima. The majority of the world’s Shi’a population, then and today, believed that the Twelfth Imam would be the one to overthrow corrupt governments and establish peace. These Twelver Shi’a broke away from the Sunni Abbasid in the early 900s to form the Fatimid dynasty. Shi’a believe this messianic Twelfth Imam has already been born, as Muhammad al-Mahdi in 868 CE, and that God has hidden him away to protect him and prolong his life. This hidden period is known as “Occulation”.

The 10th century revival of 8th century succession disputes did not help Muslim unity. The Sunni caliphate in Baghdad was weakened, broken into small provincial rulings held by separate emirs with nominal loyalty to the central government. The Shi’a in northern Africa were initially strong, though ever splintering religious sects caused internecine warfare. However, when the Seljuk Turks swooped down from Central Asia in the 1050s, they completely upended the balance of power. These Sunni warriors conquered swaths of the Byzantine empire by the 1071 Battle of Manzikert. They went to war with the Abbasid caliphate, and in 1077 they captured Jerusalem from the Fatimid rulers. Adding to the chaos, a Fatimid prince had rebelled against his brother’s rule. 

“Although Nizar was the rightful claimant to the throne after his father’s death, his younger brother Ahmad al-Musta’lī, supported by his father-in-law, the chief Vizier Badr al-Jamali, usurped all the power… Mustaali, feeling insecure during Nizar’s existence, plotted against Imam Nizar and finally succeeded in making him a prisoner along with his two sons.” – A.S. Picklay, History of the Ismailis 

Furthermore, between 1092 and 1094 several key rulers died. These included the Sunni caliph of Baghdad, the founder of the Seljuk Empire, Malik Shah I, and the Vizier and strategic ruler of the Seljuks. Each of the three largest Muslim dynasties was reckoning with its own internal succession disputes and questions of rule, as well as engaging in border wars with one another, when the Crusaders stumbled into the Mediterranean. The Europeans imagined they were fighting a holy war, a religious war between Christianity and Islam. The Muslims they fought against did not conceive of the battles that way at all; if they had, they might have sought alliances with other Muslim states against the Crusaders. But each Muslim dynasty approached the Crusaders as simply another army on the map. The Crusaders benefited from a “divide and conquer” strategy because the Muslim was already fragmented. 

What I Was Wearing

Harvey Weinstein was made a public pariah this month for the sex crimes he committed for at least 30 years. Rowan Farrow, the estranged son of open-secret Hollywood child rapist Woody Allen, exposed the man by securing testimony from dozens of actresses, former assistants, and women who left Hollywood after Weinstein’s assaults traumatized them away from their lifelong dreams. It took a chorus of voices all giving stunningly similar reports, from all of the most famous and powerful women in Hollywood at once, to take down one man. And all he lost was his studio job which served as his rape aide. He’s not in jail or facing charges. It’s just going to be harder for him to keep raping, for now. 

And for a few days, there was a national conversation about the right things: about men in power and how they abuse, about all the other men who stay silent so long as there is money to be made. About the bravery of coming forward, and the prevalence of harassment in all fields. There was discussion about how rarely men do face justice, or even consequences. Bill Cosby. Bill O’Reilly. President Trump. President Clinton. The internet exploded with the sound of women’s voices and then, when Twitter suspended the account of actress and director Rose McGowan for daring to speak out, that platform was plunged into silence as #WomenBoycottTwitter took off. Twitter took notice, and promises (for all that’s worth) to address harassment at last. 

But this culture shelters men, and it is uncomfortable with discussions that hold them accountable, even in theory. And so actress Mayim Bialik took to The New York Times to write an op-ed on “Being a Feminist in Harvey Weinstein’s World.” It’s her own story, of not being sexually harassed or assaulted, and her own narrative for why that never happened to her. Bialik posits a half dozen explanations for why she (and apparently she alone) made it to age 41 in Hollywood without being chased around a hotel room by a fat man in a bathrobe: 

  • “I didn’t look or act like other girls in my industry” – children who she describes as “young girls with doe eyes and pouty lips who spoke in a high register.”
  • “I always made conservative choices as a young actress”
  • “My mom didn’t let me wear makeup or get manicures”
  • “I followed my mother’s strong example to not put up with anyone calling me ‘baby’ or demanding hugs on set.” 
  • “I craved being around people who valued me more for what was inside my brain than what was inside my bra.” 
  • “The upside of not being a ‘perfect ten’.”
  • “Little desire to diet, get plastic surgery or hire a personal trainer”

Bialik concludes that she continues to “make choices every day as a 41-year-old actress that I think of as self-protecting and wise. I have decided that my sexual self is best reserved for private situations with those I am most intimate with.” There are several nasty things to work through here. First is the story she’s been telling herself. Mayim has been living with this comforting lie her whole life: that she had control over whether or not she was sexually harassed or abused. That conservative choices in dress and manners, that an insistence on formality in place of familiarity, that not making doe eyes or pouty lips could protect her. And since she’s made it to the far side of female huntedness to the decrepit Hollywood woman age of 41, she probably feels like it worked and she’s in the clear now. 

Yet there’s another, petty, mean layer to this. A vindictive pleasure in the “just comeuppance” of all those pretty girls and “perfect tens” who Bialik felt inferior in comparison to. She gloats at their rapes and her pious chaste safety. There is nothing feminist about that. I think this is what has angered so many survivors, far more than her inaccuracies. She isn’t just dangerously wrong. She’s angry at the wrong parties, and turning the focus from rapists and sexual harassers to women and what we wear. When I was a child, I reported the elderly man who was sexually abusing me. I went through the trauma of gathering evidence in a rape kit. (No DNA back then, but evidence of damage to the tissue.) I was willing to go through anything to make sure no other girl had to endure what I did. 

But the state prosecutor decided not to press charges. He decided I wasn’t a very good victim, in part based on what I was wearing. Dresses are such easy access you know. I still hate to wear dresses. It was light blue and white pin striped, a pinafore dress with a square white lace collar that had a tiny red rose in the middle. A seven-year-old’s dress. The end result of shifting the focus from the actions of bad men to the clothing of good girls is a prosecutor deciding a victim must have been a bad girl; after all, she was victimized. And goodness knows bad girls make bad witnesses, and we can’t give them their day in court. 

Jewish Persecution: 1 CE – Today, part 78

In the cold early months of 1098, the Christian Crusaders were starving, sniping at each other, and seeing visions. An Aurora Borealis the prior December 30th was interpreted as a Holy sign, but whether it was a good or ill omen was disputed. On March 4th a fleet arrived at St. Smyrna, led by the never-crowned exiled King of England Edward Ætheling; William the Conqueror had England’s throne so Edward was exiled in Constantinople and that’s where his fleet came from. (There is some uncertainty on whether Edward himself was aboard or merely financed the fleet.) These ships carried the raw materials for building siege engines and a properly defended fort. Bohemond of Taranto and Raymond IV of Tulouse went to fetch the supplies while Godfrey of Bouillon guarded the camp outside Antioch. 

On their return journey, the crusaders were attacked by a detachment of Antioch’s forces. The Muslim governor Yagisiyan’s troops cut down 100 Christians before Godfrey and his soldiers could meet up with the skirmish and turn it in their favor. Once they got the supplies back to camp, they started building. They assembled their fort La Mahomerie in just four days, completing construction by March 14th. This was stationed near the Bridge Gate so the Crusaders could stop Yagisiyan from sending out more troops to harry them. Around the other side of the city, Tancred of Hauteville took over an abandoned monastery through which Antioch residents were still smuggling food. This was called Tancred’s Fort. Raymond controlled La Mahomerie. Food conditions were finally improving for the Crusaders and a real siege was in place for the city. 

An embassy from the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt arrived in April. The Shi’a Fatimid were rivals of the Seljuk Turks in Antioch, and of the Abbasid in Baghdad, and the Nizari sect that had broken away from their main family line. They didn’t conceive of the conflict as a holy war between the two behemoths of Christianity and Islam. They just saw a new squabble on the scene. The embassy told the Crusaders the Fatimid dynasty would be happy with any arrangement that granted the Christians Syria, so long as the left the Holy Land alone. In the time it had taken the Crusaders to get this far, the Fatimids had renewed war in Palestine for the Seljuk, and would regain Jerusalem by July 1098. Safe passage for Christian pilgrims would be restored to what it had been before the Seljuk’s had taken Jerusalem. But the Crusaders were not interested in any contract that denied them the Holy Land. They sent the embassy away, laden with Turkish booty, to an Egypt afflicted by plague and famine.  

At the end of May a huge Muslim army from Mosul came, led by the general Kerbogha. The Crusaders knew their only chance of survival was to take the city first. Stephen of Blois deserted in fear. Bohemond worked a contact he’d been pressing, a Christian in Antioch named Firouz who he convinced to open a gate at just the right time. Bohemond told the other Crusade leaders he could get them inside and save them, but only if they would agree to make him Prince of Antioch when all this was done. Forced into life or death blackmail, the other knights grudgingly agreed with loud protests. On June 2nd the Crusaders stormed Antioch through the open gate and slaughtered the people, most of whom were Christians themselves. Yagisiyan fled but he was caught: his severed head was brought to Bohemond. By the end of June 3rd, the Crusaders had captured the city, minus the citadel held by Yagisiyan’s son Shams ad-Dualah. 

Kerbogha arrived with his sizeable army on June 5th, tried an assault on the 7th, and started a siege by the 9th. The Crusaders were back to starving again. On the 10th a French priest named Peter Bartholomew claimed he had a vision that the Holy Lance which pierced Christ’s side during the Crucifixion was present in Antioch, and a detachment began digging for it. When he produced a spear point on the 15th, spirits were raised. Then Peter had a second vision. He called for a five day fast for purification, after which they would surely be victorious. On June 28th, 1098 the Crusaders marched out with the Holy Lance before them to meet Kerbogha’s army. The starved men had visions of saints in the battle with them, guiding them toward success. It was all over quickly, and decisively. The Christians had won. 

Godfrey and Raymond occupied the governor’s palace while Bohemond took over the citadel. Byzantine Emperor Alexios I didn’t want to send a military expedition this late in the summer to recapture his city. The Crusaders spent so long arguing over who would keep Antioch that the lesser knights threatened to rebel, to go ahead without their leaders, or to simply go home. In August a typhus epidemic struck the city. In September the Crusade leaders asked Pope Urban II to take personal control over Antioch but he demurred. The bickering continued as the discontentment and hunger grew. Finally in November Raymond gave up his claims to Antioch and conceded that Bohemond could be Prince after all. The march toward Jerusalem continued in the spring of 1099. 
Further Reading 

Dartmouth Sites: The Middle East in 1095, by Adam Nemeroff (April 24, 2016). Accessed October 9th, 2017. 

Jewish Persecution: 1 CE – Today, part 77

The First Crusade armies marched through Anatolia. Arslan the Turk had burned all the fields behind him as he fled, and the Christians found little food or water as they proceeded. One soldier by the name of Baldwin of Boulogne got word that his highborn wife had died, stripping him of her lands and properties. He decided to leave the Crusade and set off eastward toward Armenian territories to stake out his own claim. Thoros of Edessa adopted Baldwin as his heir early in 1098, and died very shortly after in an uprising Baldwin may have orchestrated. By March 1099, Baldwin was the ruler of the new County of Edessa, the first of the Crusader States. This was not what Byzantine Emperor Alexios I had in mind when he asked Pope Urban II to send Christian warriors to help him reclaim lost territories!

Meanwhile the rest of the Crusaders had reached Antioch by October 1097, the midway point between Constantinople and Jerusalem. Antioch was a large and religiously important city, 3.5 square miles wrapped in stone walls with 400 towers jutting upward and six gates opening within. It was one of the three Petrine sees, or churches established by St. Peter, along with Alexandria in Egypt and Rome in Italy.  A direct assault was out of the question: Antioch had never been taken that way. It had only fallen in the past thanks to a coconspirator inside the city gates, an advantage they did not have this time. The Crusaders decided to besiege the great city. It would take eight months, through the whole long winter and into the spring.  

Antioch was ruled by a Muslim governor named Yagisiyan, a longtime friend of the Seljuk clan, though the majority of inhabitants were Christian. The first Seljuk sultan, Malik Shah I, had left his empire to his cousin Suleyman (who governed Anatolia) and brother Tutush I (who governed Syria), with Yagisiyan in charge of Antioch between them. Now Tutush’s sons Ridwan and Duqaq fought over Syria, with Ridwan claiming Aleppo as his territory and Duqaq claiming Damascus. Yagisiyan had originally allied with Ridwan but later sided with Duqaq. Ridwan retaliated and Yagisiyan was considering a marriage alliance (his daughter to Ridwan) to end the quarreling when news of the approaching crusaders sent all Muslim parties back to their own cities to defend them. 

Crusaders arrived and set up camp in October of 1097. For the first weeks they were able to eat food gathered from the immediate vicinity, but as their stores dwindled they had to resort to “foraging”, or stealing crops and livestock from further away. They were trying to outlast the city’s food supplies, but the city was undoubtedly better prepared for the siege. Attackers from the city would ride out and harry the camps, then quickly retreat behind the city walls before they could counter. In December a foraging party led by Raymond IV of Aguilers came upon a Muslim relief army headed toward Antioch, led by Duqaq of Damascus. Raymond’s men were able to defeat the Saracens, but not without losing the flock of sheep they had stolen for food. They arrived back at camp dejected and hungry, convinced God was punishing them. 

There was an earthquake the following day on December 30th. The Christians interpreted it as wrath from God for their foraging, and monks in the camp called for a three day fast. One in seven crusaders was dying of starvation by this time, and nearly as many horses. Deserters started to sneak away, even high profile figures like Peter the Hermit; Bohemond sent soldiers after them to bring them back. The Byzantium general Tatikios left when his recommendations were all ignored. Bohemond seized on this opportunity to claim Emperor Alexios had abandoned the Crusade, and thus the Crusaders could abandon their oaths to him. On February 9th, Ridwan of Aleppo led an army toward Antioch. The Crusaders marched out toward the Iron Gate to meet him, choosing a location between a river and a lake where they could not be flanked. The Christians defeated Ridwan’s forces and took the nearby city of Hiram. 

Jewish Persecution: 1 CE – Today, part 76

Crusade armies left Europe in August of 1096 CE for Constantinople, and arrived between the following November and April 1097. Emperor Alexios I of Byzantine tried to move them along towards their Muslim targets as quickly as possible, not wanting them camped outside his capital. The Crusaders were a starving and undisciplined force, prone to the worst excesses of looting and pillaging. They did not have sufficient food. Sometimes Christian peasants along their journey would offer them food as a goodwill gesture, but more often than not the Crusaders ravaged fields and cities to steal what they needed. Alexios had already witnessed the destructive capabilities of the People’s Crusade, and was reticent to let the Princes’ Crusade inside Constantinople’s city walls. 

“Moving through hostile, and often barren, country, several crusader armies had literally fallen apart from lack of food.” – Medieval Warfare – Logistics, DENO Partnership

The Princes’ Crusade crossed the Bosphorous Strait at Constantinople, the narrow natural river divide between European Turkey and Asian Turkey, connecting the Black Sea to the Aegean. They were accompanied by the Byzantine generals Tatikios and Manuel Boutoumites. In Asia Minor they joined up with the People’s Crusade led by Peter the Hermit. All together they marched on Niceae, then the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Rum meant Rome or Roman, and referred to the old Roman empire history of the place. Of course Byzantium was the most direct descendant of the Roman empire and Niceae had been a Byzantine city: they wanted it back. 

Kilij Arslan I was sultan of Rum. He was absent when the Crusaders first arrived, busy campaigning against Danishmends, another Turkic dynasty. The combined Crusade forces blockaded and besieged the city as best they could, but a large lake allowed the city to continue to be resupplied. Meanwhile word of the situation reached Arslan I. He brought his army home to attack the would-be invaders. Heavy losses and casualties were felt on both sides, but no definitive victory. Back in Constantinople, Emperor Alexios I devised a solution to the lake blockade challenge. He loaded the Crusader’s ships on logs and had them rolled on those across land toward Niceae. When the residents of the city saw the great war ships approaching thus, they surrendered on June 18th, 1097.

Byzantine troops captured Niceae, while the Crusaders were kept out. The vast majority of the Peoples’ Crusade was slaughtered before the main battle by simply wandering into Seljuk territory, unarmed and unaware. Leaving some Byzantine forces behind to hold Niceae, the remaining armies of Byzantines, French, Normans, Germans, and Italians carried on towards Dorylaeum. They divided into two armies, one Norman led and the other French, for easier maneuvering in late June 1097. They made plans to meet at their destination in early July. But the Norman led contingent was attacked on July 1st by Kilij Arslan I and his Turkish archers. 

Bohemond of Taranto’s forces were surprised by a sudden volley of arrows. Armored men had to form a protective circle around equipment and noncombatants (children and slaves). Women served as water carriers throughout the conflict, running back and forth from a well or stream. Arslan’s troops outnumbered Bohemond’s. Modern estimates suggest the Muslim Turk came with 6,000-8,000 charging on horses, shooting arrows, and retreating before Bohemond’s forces could counter. Some tried, and were killed for their troubles. Eventually Bohemond was reinforced by the French led half of the Crusader army. These troops set Arslan’s camp on fire and attacked from the rear. He retreated in great haste as the Crusade army suddenly doubled in size and ferocity. 

Further Reading

Woodward, CPT John. “Medieval Logistics As Applied to the Classes of Quartermaster Supply” in Quartermaster Professional Bulletin, Winter 2000. Accessed October 6th 2017. 

Magadalino, Paul. The Byzantine Background to the First Crusade, Canadian Institute of Balkan Studies (1996).WBM

Houben, Hubert. Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler Between East and West, Cambridge University Press (2002).